Dependency injection~ Popular concepts ~

Dependency injection

Dependency injection (DI) or inverse of control (IoC) is a concept that is not popular in the JavaScript ecosystem. In some cases, the framework pushes the developer to use some DI. But otherwise, solving dependency management is not among the core problems of today's projects. To better understand the need for DI, check the example below:

async function postToFacebook(message, service, settings) {
  const client = new Service({ APIKey: settings.fb.key });
  const result = await;
  return result;

This function that posts a message to the popular social network has three dependencies. The first one is the message. We have to leave that because it is different every time. We don't know that upfront. The other two are known dependencies. We know what service we will be using and, we also know the API key. So, now the question is: "Is it a job of this function to initiate the service?". Probably no. Another inconvenient fact is that we have to carry the Service class and the settings to every place where we use this function. We have a design problem.

One of the solutions is to rely on dependency injection and create the service in another place. Then deliver it to the function when we need it. Implementation wise we need a DI container. Something like:

const Container = {
  _storage: {},
  register(key, deps, func) {
    this._storage[key] = { deps, func };
  get(key) {
    if (!this._storage[key]) throw new Error(`Missing ${key}`);
    const { func, deps } = this._storage[key];
    return (...args) => {
      const resolvedDeps = => this.get(key));
      return func(...resolvedDeps, ...args);

With that, we can start and register our dependencies. The first will be settings and then the Service.

Container.register('settings', [], () => {
  return { fb: { key: 'xxx' } }
Container.register('client', ['settings'], (settings) => {
  return new Service({ APIKey: settings().fb.key });

After this code, our container knows about all the dependencies of postToFacebook function. Notice that we also define a connection between the client and the settings. We solve this dependency problem right away here at the container level.

The next step is to register postToFacebook. This last step is important. It is the moment where we let the container injects the dependencies.

Container.register('postToFacebook', ['client'], async (client, message) => {
  const result = await client().post(message);
  return result;

The dependencies appear first in the list of arguments. After that, we have the function parameters. In our case, this is the message string. Here is how the code that uses the container looks like:

const publish = container.get('postToFacebook');

publish('What a beautiful day!');

The get method of the container resolves the needed dependencies and, we get back a function that requires just the message.